Three new species of Microlaimus are described from the continental shelf of the Campos Basin, southwest Atlantic, Brazil. Microlaimus campiensis sp. n. differs from all other species in the presence of two anterior testes, slender spicules with enlarged proximal ends, 7–11 pre-cloacal papilliform supplements, and females with a pair of constriction structures, one on each branch of the ovary. Microlaimus alexandri sp. n. shows sexual dimorphism in the size of the amphidial fovea, which occupies 100% of the diameter of the corresponding area in the male; the buccal cavity provided with five teeth and a slightly cuticularized cuticular ring. Microlaimus vitorius sp. n. has four longitudinal-lateral rows of glands associated with small pores, one seta and three pores small pre-cloacal, and the gubernaculum has a triangular base. An amendment to the diagnosis of the genus is proposed, where the number of teeth was modified.