The new genus Afractinca is erected in Actinolaimidae to accommodate four species from the Cote d'Ivoire. A. andrassyi sp. nov. and three species previously attributed to Brasilaimus, viz. A. heynsi (Coomans & Vinciguerra, 1989) comb. nov., A. irmae (De Ley & Coyne, 1997) comb. nov. and A. papillata (Schneider, 1935) comb. nov. The new genus is characterised by having the anterior end externally bordered by a hexagonal thickening, connected by radial prongs or denticles to a convex, disk-like cuticular projection anteriorly protruding and surrounding mouth. On the hexagonal thickening six inner labial and four cephalic papillae are located; this arrangement of the lip region structures distinguishes Afractinca gen. nov. from Brasilaimus Lordello & Zamith, 1957, where instead of the external hexagonal thickening there is a thinner sclerotized ring internal to the lip region and the six inner labial and the four cephalic papillae are not located on the ring but on the external walls of lip region. In the new genus, males always lack a copulatory hump ("Kopulationshocker"). Afractinca andrassyi sp. nov. found around grass roots, is characterized by having 20-22 longitudinal ridges in the cuticle, lip region large and slightly set off from body, and tail longer than six anal body widths. The taxonomic status of Actinca and Brasilaimus is discussed.